Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The True Age of the Sphinx essays The Sphinx is 250 long and 60 ft high. Egyptologist's believed that the Sphinx was built in 2500 BC in the time of the pharaoh Chephren, but recent findings by John Anthony West suggest that there are water erosions unlike any other marks found on other Giza monuments. Unlike sand and wind erosions, which produce horizontal marks, West found that the erosion marks on the Sphinx were vertical...like those associated by water, but unlike the sand and wind marks which can be explained thanks to the destructive forces of the Sahara, where did the watermarks originate? The scientist had several debates over the true age of the Sphinx. They guessed that the sphinx must be much older than 9000 years. As there were a lot of rain storms and lakes in Africa 10.000 years ago, the Sphinx could be built in these years. Another point is that the Sphinx is not a monument of the ancient Pharao Chefren. Thats what a police officer proved after several researches. At least they are pretty sure how the Sphinx was built: At first they built the head. Then they built the body. To build the body they moved huge Blocks. Thats amazing that they could move blocks like this and that they could build monuments like the Sphinx and the pyramids. As time went by the body of the sphinx rain eroded the body of the Sphinx. Later wind eroded the Sphinx. They renovated the ...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Deadly Truth- A Research Paper on Euthanasia Free Online Research Papers Euthanasia: is it really necessary? Euthanasia, otherwise known as mercy killing or physician assisted suicide, is the intentional killing of a dependent human for his or her alleged benefit. There are many types of Euthanasia. Among these are voluntary, non-voluntary, and involuntary Euthanasia. Voluntary Euthanasia is after the person has requested to be killed; non-voluntary is when the person has given no consent or made no request; and last but not least there is involuntary Euthanasia, which is when the person has expressed a wish to the contrary. Euthanasia is not truly euthanasia unless the person who is killed is in fact killed intentionally (Ã¢â¬Å"EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ ). One would think many and most people would be against this killing of innocent people, however; this is not the case. The numbers have gotten better, though. In a poll given in 1996, seventy- five percent of the United States was in favor for Euthanasia, but in 1997, the numbers changed. In June of 1997, fifty- seven percent supported it and thirty- five percent of people opposed Euthanasia. Religious When one thinks of Euthanasia, usually a strong figure in their mind is Dr. Kevorkian. This was the doctor that was known throughout the world for the physician assisted suicides that he performed. He was sentenced to jail for many reasons, one being the suspicion of pushing his patients to partake in it, rather than letting them making their own decision in the matter of their own life. Euthanasia is wrong and should be illegal for the following reasons: Euthanasia is biblically and morally wrong, it puts a value on a human life, and also Euthanasia is compromising the doctoring practice as a whole because of how people view this medical procedure. The first thing to know is that euthanasia is biblically and morally wrong. In Exodus 21:14 its states, Ã¢â¬Å" But if a man schemes and kills another man deliberately, take him away from my altar and put him to death.Ã¢â¬ (Barker 118) Also, in the Ten Commandments, Exodus 20:13, it states, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shall not murder.Ã¢â¬ (Barker 117). There are numerous examples such as these listed throughout The Bible. Secondly, Euthanasia has begun to put a value on the human life. Many people see it okay to kill in self- defense, which it is. In a self defense one is saving an innocent life, but when performing euthanasia one is taking an innocent life, no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is being saved here. (Ã¢â¬Å"EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ ) Many doctors now are not taking other people lives into consideration and instead of pushing them against it they are more forcing the patients into assisted suicide. Given, there are people that are in a vegetative state; Euthanasia should not be their way out of life. Every human life has the same value. Just because someone is one way or another, does not on ANY grounds mean that their life means anything less than someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s life. These lives should be protected. Physician Last but not least Euthanasia is compromising the doctoring practice. People are losing trust in all doctors because of the few that practice Euthanasia. Many doctors are not like Steven A. Wahls, who stated, Ã¢â¬Å"As a physician who practices Ã¢â¬Ëin the front linesÃ¢â¬â¢ I have had the privilege of caring for many individuals with terminal illness. I am proud to say that for each one has been handled with compassion and care, good pain relief, and emotional as well as spiritual support with out any assistance in shortening their Ã¢â¬Ëtime of dyingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Wekesser 107). If you look at doctors now, they are more and more increasing to going to assisted suicide. Seventy-five percent of people who attempt suicide do not actually want to die and itÃ¢â¬â¢s all just a cry for attention. National Euthanasia is wrong and should stay illegal. Instead of using a suicide method, why not use the Will-to-Live project? This project states that you have named someone to make a decision for you in case terminally ill or put into a terminally ill state. There will be clear written instructions on the medical treatment that you are to receive, no questions asked. (Ã¢â¬Å"NationalÃ¢â¬ ) Do the right thing and help save our population! Research Papers on The Deadly Truth- A Research Paper on EuthanasiaArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Capital PunishmentThe Fifth HorsemanThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoGenetic EngineeringThree Concepts of PsychodynamicBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesUnreasonable Searches and Seizures
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business Communication High School - Assignment Example This si the reason the first paragraph often summarises the good news. The indirect approach on the other hand, calls for a more inductive method, where the end is proven, instead of stating it right away. It is used for negative reports, where explanation that leads to the negative end is adopted. Secondly, one must see whom it addresses. If it is written to a higher up, it must be written in indirect approach, since it is generally written in undertone and polite, instead of sounding too direct or bombastic. Thirdly, the kind of structure to be followed determines the approach to be adopted. If an explanatory and then a conclusive answer is the preferred idea, then the indirect approach is to be adopted. Meanwhile, for direct statement of the idea, the direct approach is appropriate. In the mentioned scenario, the direct approach would be a risky one, since it would sound too impolite and direct. The indirect approach would be best suited for the situation.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Holistic Health Resources - Essay Example s website, emotional wellness, it is determined by the ability of an individual to be aware and accepting of his or her own feelings, as well as stress management skills. She works with the Idea Health and Fitness Association, which gives information based on thorough research and ensures it is up to date. This depends on how positive they are about their life. The intellectual wellness is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be a rational thinker; to have a greater understanding of things and have creativity within them (Applebaum). On another website NetWellness center, which is a non-profit global community service, the physical wellness involves the ability of an individual to participate in different sorts of exercises that determine the strength of their muscles and the health of their heart. The social wellness of an individual is determined by their ability to create and maintain healthy relationships. Spiritual wellness, on the other hand, refers to how much are they willing to seek meaning and the purpose of their existence. It involves the development of personal principles (Fitzwater). Vocational Wellness refers to the accomplishment of personal and career goals. As a result, the individual is motivated by goals. Forever-active is also a fitness and wellness center that is dedicated to improving peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. In relation to information provided on the website, the main points emphasize that the six dimensions are important, because they enable an individual to be focused, confident and make decisions based on correct moral grounds. When people master the art of achieving the requirements of the six dimensions of wellness, then they are able to live fulfilling lives
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Justifications For Improvement In Social Services for the Aged in the Republic of Ireland Essay Example for Free
Justifications For Improvement In Social Services for the Aged in the Republic of Ireland Essay Access to health and social services remains a fundamental human right to a civilized society like that of republic of Ireland. Every person, regardless of age, religion or political affiliation should be able to access health and services if and when they need it. In the case of people with special needs, access to these services becomes even more important. This is because they are the ones that are likely to need these services more frequently. They are also the ones who are likely to be unable to access these services, despite the fact that they need them more. These people with special needs include the aged, the children and the disabled amongst others. For example, those people with mental illnesses are entitled to visits from social workers. These visits are made by the social worker to the homes of the mentally ill to make sure that the family is treating them with respect and care and to make sure that they take their medicine in time and when the need arises. The aged in the republic of Ireland are entitled to certain fundamental social and health services. These include treatment for the diseases that are likely to afflict them and counselling from the social workers. However, it is with deep concern that the writer has noted that the social services that are availed to this group of people are not enough. Some of them are forced to go to homes for the aged where it is said that they will be receiving social and medical services round the clock. However, it is not the wish of these people to spend the rest of their lives enclosed in an institution that they did not want in the first place. This writer noted that the home based care of these people needs to be improved. They should be allowed to stay at their homes. But the number of social workers should be increased such that every old person has a personal social worker who will be accessible at all times. Thus, this paper is advocating for the improvement of home based social care for the aged. Status of the Social Services for the Aged in the Republic of Ireland Social service in Ireland falls under the docket of public health care system for the country (Cahill: 2008). It is enshrined in the health act that was enacted in the year 2004. This act provided for the development of institutions that are tasked with providing social services to every citizen of this country. The social services as such ended up been a part and mandate of the Health Service Executive (Chandran: 2008). Within the HSE, as this body is popularly known, social service is under the department of primary, community and continuing care (Gunnar: 2007). The services that are provided for the older people include rehabilitation and community services. They are also provided by home based services. The latter includes the visitations made by the nurses and other community health officials to the homes of the aged. This paper is going to petition the HSE to improve the social services that the aged gets at their homes, rather than at the institutions for the aged. Improved Social Services for the Irish Aged In 2006, a census was conducted in the republic of Ireland by the Central Statistics Office of Ireland. According to this census, the aged in Ireland were estimated at 207,000 for the male and 260,000 for the females (Schnepper: 2008). These were the ones who are aged sixty five years and above. This is the group that is considered and defined as the aged. They are the ones that need social services more than the others in the society. This number seems big if it is compared with the total number of social service providers that are employed by NSE. NSE employs around 100,000 service care providers. These are the ones that provide care for the aged, the children, the mentally ill and the disabled amongst others (Higgins: 2009). As such, the service provision for the old is neglected, since these care providers are overworked and their resources overstretched. As such, NSE needs to recruit more service providers to cater for the old. The old people have problems accessing not only the social services entitled to them, but also other services like the home care scheme, which provides for a package to cover for their treatment. The national economic and social forum came up with a report on May 2009 highlighting the difficulties that these people experience as they try to access this service (Hughes: 2009). This package has helped at least ten thousand Irish aged in 2008 (Hughes: 2009). But this number is very small compared to the earlier stated estimates of the aged. This means that some of these people are unable to access this service. Something must be done to enable these people to access the service. It is not enough to provide for the service in society, the authorities must make sure that the services are accessed by those people who need it. As John Rawls says, Ã¢â¬Å"institutions in the societyÃ¢â¬ ¦. ut regulation in place to ensure that support services are availed to those who experience the targeted problemÃ¢â¬ (Hughes: 2009). This means that HSE should ensure that the old people get the services that are available for them. There is only one way to ensure this. If these people had access to a social worker, he will be able to sensitise them on how to access such services when the need for it arises. The social worker will not only help the aged access the service, he will also ensure identify situations when the service is called for. It is fact that Irish aged have little or no access to the care services that they need. Many old people, since they lack constant care and other services, ends up developing complications that leads to their incapacitation. These complications could have been avoided if they had accessed the appropriate care at the appropriate time (Chandran: 2008). For example, they develop diseases like cardiac and diabetes. These diseases can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise. However, these people have no one to advise them on the best diet to take in order to avoid such illnesses. They have no one to advise them on the lifestyle they should adopt in order to live healthy. As such, these complications lead to their admissions to nursing homes. This is too little too late, since the condition is likely to have deteriorated. However, if they had the constant care of a home based social service provider, they would have been advised appropriately on the lifestyle to adopt and diet to take to avoid such incidences (Higgins: 2009). According to John Rawl Ã¢â¬Å"equality cannot be achieved by worsening the least advantagedÃ¢â¬ (Hughes: 2009). This means that there will be no equality in the society if the status of the less advantaged (in this case the old) is made worse. This will be a contradiction to the human rights of justice and equality to all. Less than three percent of Irish aged enjoys home based care, like the one provided for by the social workers (Schnepper: 2008). This is as compared to other countries in this continent, like the United Kingdom. This number is very small, considering the number of aged people that are in this country. The reasons for this measly access are varied. Some include ignorance on the part of the aged, as they do not know that such services do exist. The other reason, and may be the most important, is that there is a shortage of social care providers. This means that there is no one to deliver these services to the aged. The services are there, but there is no one to deliver them. Conclusion There is disproportionately large number of aged people in Ireland as compared to the social service providers. As such, the aged remain to have their health and well being deteriorate. Majority of the aged suffer from depression. This can be mitigated if they have access to the services of social care providers, who will help by counselling them. It is not only their mental health that is at risk, but also their physical health. There is need then for NSE to increase the number of home based social service providers to cater for the well being of this segment of the society.
Friday, November 15, 2019
What factors influence the onset of drug addiction? Familial Risk Factors Favoring Drug Addiction Onset Introduction: The purpose of the study is to indicate the factors that are suspected to be affecting children for drug abuse. The author Zimic and Jukic have concluded their work Familial Risk Factors Drug Addiction Onset which is a sound research based on a sample of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. The hypothesis of the study is drug addiction might surely be seen from parental standpoint. The hypothesis is taken on the basis of past results, different case studies, and research papers on the subject of drug addiction. The authors seem to have biased thinking towards drug addiction related with parents and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing. Though there is a direct relation between a child and parents but it is not certain that they are the reason for this drug abuse. The paper, however, discusses very little about other factors including peer groups, friends, social environment and other factors. According to the authors, drug addiction is most prone to children in their teen age for which surveillance from parents is much required in order to have a look at their daily routine, the friendships they have, and relations with the people surrounding their children (Zimic and Jukic, 2012). The behavior of overlooking a child in the teen age causes serious troubles to let them astray from their supposed pattern of life, a happy and healthy life, to a drug addicted life which remains for lifetime. These are the factors, the major points and real time facts which have been discussed in the study along with the familial factor that, according to authors, make drug addiction more stream line for a child who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough knowledge for outside world in the teen age. Methods: The study was conducted in time interval from 2008 to 2009 in which they took a sample of drug addicts and normal (non-drug addict) people from the population. The total number of drug addicts was 146 in which there we 92 men, 51 women and 3 other people who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t specify their gender but their age was between 18 and 46 years. The survey was done using questionnaire, having around 67 different variables involved in the questions. This study was taken while the addicts were undergoing through the recovery process in different psychiatrist hospitals. The sample for control group or the normal group had a total of 134 people of which 88 were men, 45 were females and 1 of the 134 people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t specify the gender but the age of that individual was between 17 and 44 years of age. The study is pure quantitative in nature and is experimental since individuals from both the groups are being tested using questionnaires, asking their school background, age, sex, place of birth, place of birth and more such questions that the researchers found important to consider so that they may have complete insight of the subjects. Though the questions asked were qualitative because of the fact that additional information regarding the background of the subjects was needed. The questions comprised of open ended and closed ended questions and also had given the subjects with an option Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ so that if they had any other answer to the question, they could put that in the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ option. The purpose for this additional option was to have complete knowledge of the subject without missing any single piece of information. The questionnaire were given to the subjects in hand rather using any other medium such as mail or email. Open-ended questions were analy zed by the researchers categorizing them as either positive, negative, or neutral. Statistical software, SPSS, was used to analyze the research questions and get more appropriate findings. The procedures chosen for the research were valid, appropriate and accurate enough to achieve suitable results, those which were statistically right. Ethical Aspects: The researcher took into account all aspects of ethics and other factors that should be taken care of while performing a research on such sensitive cases where medical teams, hospitalized patients; more importantly patients those who have imbalances psychologically are involved. The ethical criteria were fulfilled before performing the research. The approval was taken by the research team from Board of Ethics of University Medicine in Zagreb and Board of Ethics of Hospital Vrapce and Clinical Hospital Sister of Mercy. The research team did not only fulfilled this aspect of ethical moralities but also attached cover letters with the questionnaires to all the subjects that explained the purpose of the study. They took the information from the subjects after providing a notice to all the subjects that the information provided will be held hundred percent confidential and this the reason why the questionnaire did not have questions such as name, date of birth and like. Results: The results of this study were taken out in several categories and in different aspects of the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s information received. In the familial sociodemographic feature aspect, the researchers did not find any statistically sound differences such as the subjects mostly came from three-five members family, they were firstborns among the siblings and like. The only difference in this aspects was found in the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s marital status. In the familial development feature aspect, significant differences were recorded in further several aspects such as: separation of parents before the age of seven, parental divodrce or death of one of parents in early childhood or adolescence, psychological stress or trauma experienced in the life, parental surveillance, and parental support. In the familial interaction features aspect the results were more intense and shocking differences were found between the two samples. The results for this aspect were taken further in to: Unfavorable emo tional relationship with the parents, especially with the father throughout the childhood and adolescence. People from addicts had favored their mothers when they were asked to choose from their father and mother for emotional attachment. Most of the non-addict subjects also favored their mothers over fathers when asked for attentiveness of their parents. The results showed that addicts had more intense and distant relationship with their fathers because of the fact lack of appropriate communication in the early childhood. Even in the case of lack of communication with the mother, the subjects favored their mothers to have better level of understanding and that the mothers were more caring and attentive towards their child than fathers. The results also concluded that addicts were of the view that the decision-making at home were eventually made by their fathers while mothers were given less or no chance to make decisions. While on the other hand, the control group had a different point of view. The results showed that the control group had answered in the favor of both the parents that the decision is made considering the point of view of the parents. In the familial sociological features aspect, results showed huge differences between the two subject samples. Discussion and Conclusion: The study was taken out in the normal environment without the subjects knowing that they were being experimented. The research outcomes suggest that early childhood relationships with parents, especially with the father had more adverse effects on the lives of their children. The results showed the statistically proven, the addicts had more complaints regarding their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and lack of attentiveness and emotion intent during their childhood and adolescence which eventually resulted in non-compliance to surveillance during the teen age, emotional relationship, and openness to freedom of speech. The addicts who were sampled were more inclined towards their mothers than fathers because of their caring attitude, level of interest in the child and degree of emotional intent. On the other hand, the control group had more of a balanced relationship between their parents, they said that they had better understanding between them, more balanced decision-making right and that they were taken care from both almost equally. Other reasons for drug addiction were the past experiences, stress, trauma or any unsuitable event that had jolted the addicts. People who were exposed to war environment in their lives, had more trauma and stress level ultimately ending up in the shape of drug addiction. The study also discussed the parental differences, the divorce, deceased and single parent factor which had direct impact on their children. The study had more appropriate results and the tests performed were statistically sound which gave the results more close to reality. Parents do have direct impact on their children and the upbringing of a child significantly matters for the rest of their lives. Parents who oversee their children actually put them in trouble later, sometime, in their lives. To save the lives of their children from drug addiction, parents do have to play a vital role from the day a child is born till, at least, the teen age and proper surveillance be made in order to get the insights of the daily routine of their child. A child learns from their parents, so this comes on to the parents who can make a life or break it. References: ZimiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¡, J. I., JukiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¡, V. (2012). Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 44(2), 173-185.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
How does Robert Louis Stevenson use contemporary Victorian issues in Ã¢â¬ÅDr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬Â? Essay
Robert Louis Stevenson manages to blur the lines of reality in his novella, Ã¢â¬Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.Ã¢â¬ He does this by adding in small and, occasionally, well concealed ideas and themes of the Victorian era. This includes things like the level of crime in 1800s London and comparisons between Mr. Hyde and Jack the Ripper, LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s most notorious serial killer ever. It also shows how the Victorian middle and upper class sought respectability and on the outside, appeared to be upstanding members of the community. However, many engaged in less than respectable acts such as meeting prostitutes and taking drugs such as opium in the many dens in the East End of London. This is very similar to the double life of Jekyll and Hyde lead. But some of the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s plot can be traced back to how Edinburgh, StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s birth place and where he grew up. Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on 13th November, 1850. He was the son of a light house engineer who saw Robert following in his footsteps. However, he took an interest in writing and became an author who studied at the University of Edinburgh. This is possibly where some of the inspiration came from for the book. As with all cities, Edinburgh had its more impoverished end. This, like the East End, had the opium dens and prostitutes that were so popular with the higher echelons of society. Stevenson may have seen this during his childhood and studying there and included it in his book. These themes that shaped StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s, some of which IÃ¢â¬â¢ve already mentioned, shaped the book. As I have said, crime in Victorian Britain played a huge part in both life and the book. The horrific Jack the Ripper murders hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t taken place long before the book was written. These would have played a major part in the writing of the darker aspects of the book. Although these crimes took place hundreds of miles from his home but they could have had a major effect on the way Stevenson viewed things. They were, after all, brutal murders that still fascinate people today, from all across the globe. There were also other murders of the time that were gruesome and captivated the Victorians imagination. This influence is show in chapter 4 when, right at the begging, Stevenson begins to explain the actions of the murder. Ã¢â¬Å"London was startled by a crime of singular ferocity.Ã¢â¬ This is very similar to the Jack the Ripper cases in the sense that people were stunned by how gruesome they were. In the next section, it describes the action of the murder and just how horrifying it was. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Hyde broke out of all bounds and clubbed him to the earth. And next moment, with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim under foot and hailing down a storm of blows, under which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway.Ã¢â¬ This level of graphic detail made the murder seem almost unbearable to the reader sometimes causing distress but always making the book stick in their mind. The Victorian middle and upper classes need to look respectable was a driving force in many of their activities. Many tried to present the image of being an upstanding member of the community while secretly being drunks, clients of prostitutes and drug addicts. They tried their best to keep this side of their lives quite by only visiting these places at night or making sure they were far from home. They also tried to show themselves as being a nice person by doing things for certain charities and being teetotal. This of course was not true and they did regularly engage in things that would be deemed as unfit for a gentleman of high standing. This was very similar to Jekyll who, even without the aid of Hyde, would indulge his darker side by doing many of the afore mentioned activates. This had the effect of making Hyde come out without the use of the potion. However, with Hyde, he would often go further with random acts of violence on unknown people. Hyde represented a complete collapse in law and order, a step back in the evolutionary chain. This may also have been a guiding light in StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s writings. Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s paper Ã¢â¬Å"On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for LifeÃ¢â¬ was one of the most controversial scientific theories ever published. When released in 1859, many people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe and, along with many other scientific discoveries, the church tried to ban it. It stated how through means of natural selection, only the fittest and best adapted to the environment. This is true of Hyde in a slightly backwards way. He was a step backwards in the sense that he was closer to a Neanderthal than a Homo Sapien. However, Hyde is a step forward in the sense that he could be the next step, despite appearing further back than the rest of the human population. This is quite a worrying though that HumanÃ¢â¬â¢s may be a step too far in the evolutionary chain. This can be seen as a direct attack on evolution by Stevenson as he tries to show how, in some cases, the evolutionary chain breaks dow n. In conclusion, Stevenson uses the current news articles and views of the time to create a world which is in two worlds. One is the fictional London in which Hyde walks the streets, the other a London which really did exist. By creating this overlap, he made people feel like hey were involved, like what was happening in the book really could happen in real life. This may have been what made it a great success. However, one other theory that states that, at the time of writing the novella, Stevenson was high on cocaine and did not stop writing for 3 days. This throws in the question could all of the supposed ideas and views drawn from real life just be a drug educed haze? While there is no concrete proof of this, it is quite interesting to think that one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest stories could be nothing more than the hallucinations of a junkie. Whether this is true or not, Ã¢â¬Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ remains one of the greatest books ever written.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Throughout this work I will relate to a case study. I will provide a definition of abuse using both sociological and psychological perspectives to contribute to our understanding of the causes of abuse. I will define the types, indicators, signs and symptoms of abuse and its impact on families and individuals, identifying factors relevant to the case study, recognising and explaining current legislation making reference to Government reports/inquiries and research into failures to protect from harm and abuse. I will consider the policies and procedures that my work place use and I will identify some statutory and voluntary agencies and their roles in supporting those affected by abuse, relating specifically to the abuse of children. My understanding is abuse is an unpleasant and harmful treatment of an individual, which can effects physical and psychological welfare and may affect future development. Abuse can cause an individual a great deal of distress and fear, as well as physical injury and may affect their emotional development. Ã¢â¬Å"Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age. see more:identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse in health and social care It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Exposure to intimate partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child maltreatmentÃ¢â¬ (WHO) A Psychological & Sociological Perspective into the Causes of Abuse Psychological theory focuses on the instinctive and psychological qualities of those who abuse. Believing itÃ¢â¬â¢s the abusers abnormalities that are responsible for abuse, abusive parents may have been abused in childhood. Psychodynamic theory claims abuse and neglect are a bi-product of maternal deprivation. The mother has suffered abuse herself, displays a lack of empathy, sensitivity and responses to her child. Mother and child relationships are the focus with the mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ psychological make-up key. Psychodynamic psychologists say we are born with drives which need satisfying and if not satisfied one can be psychologically stuck at a certain stage EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"lifespanÃ¢â¬ theory saw that universally people face conflict throughout stages of life, he said people faced conflicts influenced by social relationships, rather than their own psycho-sexual development. At each stage of life Erikson believed was: a conflict to resolve and a balance to achieve between the two with a possible positive outcome, creating a Ã¢â¬ËvirtueÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëego strengthÃ¢â¬â¢ allowing competency in all other areas of life or if not resolved a negative Ã¢â¬ËmaladjustmentÃ¢â¬â¢ causing disadvantage in the succeeding stage. For example at Stage 1 Ã¢â¬â Infancy, conflict Ã¢â¬â trust versus mistrust. A baby learns from attentive care to trust, or through neglect, mistrust in the world. Good resolution of this stage leads to the ego strength of hope about the world. The mala djustment can be either mistrust or insecurity. Erikson believes people whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve had problems in life havenÃ¢â¬â¢t resolved conflict beforehand and as each stage is programmed the individual cannot relive a stage however work can be done to resolve some of the issues. Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life has to be sustained hope must remain, even when confidence is wounded, trust impairedÃ¢â¬ Erikson, 1950. (Bingham et al. p78) Sociological theory emphasise social and political conditions as most important reason for child abuse, examining social conditions that create the climate for abuse, not individual factors. Feminist theory sees abuse as longstanding male power over women and children, believing men abuse to exert power. Brownmiller 1975, revealed sexual abuse is more than an action committed by one man against one woman; it is a imposing tool of male control over women, an exercise of power with a philosophy to instruct women to fear male violence. Ã¢â¬Å"A sexual invasion of the body by force, an incursion into the private, personal inner space without consent. . . . constitutes a deliberate violation of emotional, physical and rational integrity and is a hostile, degrading act of violence that deserves the name of rapeÃ¢â¬ (Brownmiller, S p377) The five most common social service workers will likely see are: Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Neglect and Financial Abuse. Physical abuse is causing bodily harm it may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning or suffocating or excessive discipline or family violence, use of restraints or imprisonment, denial or misuse of medication, physical aids and adaptations or when the carer feigns ill-health of a child. Some signs and indicators may be physical (several injuries in various stages of healing, repeated injuries or accidents over a period of time, injuries that form a shape like the object used to injure (buckle, hand, iron, teeth, cigarette burns), or death. Behavioural indicators include (negative self-image, deserving punishment, no recall how injuries occurred, offer inconsistent explanations, wary of others and reluctance to go home) Physical abuse can be seen in relation to John Burn (60). He claimed no recollection to a black-eye and urged for his son not to be informed, although it is important not to cast assumptions. Emotional abuse is persistent neglect with severe effects on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional development. Can involve conveying worthlessness, detested, inadequate or valued only to meet the needs of another. It may involve the imposition of age- or developmentally-inappropriate expectations on a child or causing children fear or danger, or exploiting or corrupting them. Some level of emotional abuse is persistent in all ill treatment. Both physical (Bed-wetting/soiling without medical cause, prolonged vomiting/diarrhoea, not attained developmental milestones) and behavioural (play models negative behaviour/language, depression, anxiety, withdrawal or aggression) signs may be indicators. John Burn did not want his son to be told anymore of his black-eye as he would be annoyed, Ann reported Peter gets loud and aggressive at night and appeared apprehensive during social work visit as Peter did not want interference. Sexual abuse includes acts or behaviours where a more powerful person uses another for a sexual purpose. It may involve a stranger, however most sexual abuse is by someone known and trusted. It includes touching, fondling, sexual intercourse, exposure of private parts, or seeking to be touch for sexual gratification. Also voyeurism, pornographic photographing or involvement of children, prostitution or using internet/phone for sexual conversations with children. Indicators can be: physical: bruises, swelling or bleeding in genital/vaginal/anal area, torn, stained or bloody underclothing, and STIÃ¢â¬â¢s. Behavioural Ã¢â¬â cringing/flinching if touched; caregiver constantly calling Ã¢â¬ËstupidÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËdumbÃ¢â¬â¢ and can be displayed by child or abuser. Scottish Government acknowledges Ã¢â¬Å"not every case of sexual activity in under-16s has child protection concerns, but some may need support in relation to their sexual development and relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (fpa.org. uk). Ann (17) has learning difficulties and would have been under 16 during her first pregnancy. Due to her age and vulnerability Child Protection issues should have been raised as Peter is almost double AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s age and the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 states Ã¢â¬Å"sexual activity between an adult and someone under 16 is a criminal offenceÃ¢â¬ Neglect Ã¢â¬â failure to meet basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of health or development, involving failure to provide food, shelter and clothing, or to protect from physical harm/danger, or failure to obtain medical care/treatment, failure to respond to basic emotional needs. Possible physical indicators may be: Inappropriately dress for weather, dirty, unkempt, lengths of time unsupervised, malnourished, severe nappy rash or persistent skin disorders from lack of care and hygiene. Both children in the case study are neglected they have unsatisfactory medical attendance with George (1) suffering nappy rash, inflamed skin and missed inoculations since birth. Kyle (2) has missed medicals which couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve addressed his development needs. Financial abuse includes stealing money or property, fraud, pressure in connection with savings, wills, inheritance or personal financial transactions, embezzlement, pensions or benefits. Possible signs and indicators of this abuse: unusual & unexplained activity in bank accounts, embezzlement or unpaid bills. John Burn may have been financially abused, he has no recollection of missing money and is unable to manage without it, and again does not want his son to know. The impact and effects of the above abuse within the case study is apparent as Peter Burns has traded a dependency on heroin for alcohol which sees him sleep all day, neglecting his role within the family and becomes loudly aggressive at night, this would cause fear in the rest of the household. Protection means recognising concerns and understanding how to share concerns, investigate, assess and the steps required to ensure safety and well-being. Legislation places a variety of duties and responsibilities on services and organisations. Neglectful indicators seen in both infants within the study, social work may say that the parents breach Ã¢â¬ËSection 5 of The Children (Scotland) Act 1995Ã¢â¬â¢ which states Ã¢â¬Å"a parent has in relation to his child the responsibility to safeguard and promote the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, development and welfareÃ¢â¬ . (www.scotland.gov.uk) Ã¢â¬Å"State Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms ofÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.Ã¢â¬ (Article 19Ã¢â¬â¢ UNCRC) This places responsibility on the social worker and health professionals in case study. Legislation is often formed as a response to public inquiries, highlighting poor practice/abuse that takes place with authority or private providers, government investigations highlight failures and make recommendations to prevent future incidents. Summary of Fatal Accident Inquiry Determination: The Deaths on Erskine Bridge Niamh and Georgia died below Erskine Bridge, 4/10/2009, by suicides. Having walked from the Good Shepherd Open Unit, stopping at the centre of the Bridge, both girls died on impact with the water. The Inquiry lasted 65 days and it ruled deaths avoidable had reasonable precautions been taken: Ã¢â¬ËStaff members on duty at the Unit been higher. Had Niamh & Georgia risk assessment needs assessed and accommodated at a different location within the UnitÃ¢â¬â¢. Several recommendations were made following relating to: security, supervision, management, lack of information, risk/psychological assessments missing, better communication system and accurate recording /time keeping amongst others. Professor S Platt of Health Policy Research at University of Edinburgh made three recommendations which are reflected in residential policies now. 1. Local authorities to commission guidelines for staff on recognising and mitigating suicide risk in this client group. These guidelines should include the requirement to develop a detailed management protocol. 2. The management protocol should set out the procedures to be implemented when a looked after and accommodation child is considered to be at risk of self-harm or suicide e.g. by making suicide Ã¢â¬ËthreatsÃ¢â¬â¢, by expressing suicidal thoughts or by making preparations for suicide. The protocol should cover inter alia the allocation of duties and responsibilities. 3. Professionals working with looked after and accommodated children, either directly or indirectly should have a sound understanding self-harm and suicide among their clients and of appropriate interventions to mitigate that risk. Provision of appropriate training on start of employment and regularly thereafter (as part professional development). (Scotland-judiciary.com) Results of recommendations mean frequent suicide prevention training is mandatory, new traffic light system of reporting absconders/missing people, created in partnership with Strathclyde Police and Local Authorities reflecting individual risk assessments, allowing staff to identify and prevent risks of self harm or suicide and report efficiently should they suspect an absconder is at risk. My workplace lengthy child protection policy, provides guidelines for all eventualities. In the case of a disclosure the child/young person would be informed that information would be passed on if it related to their wellbeing being harmed, allowing them to speak without interruption, listen to-do not coheres, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make judgement, positive praise for sharing with you and inform them that you will do all in your power to support them. It must then be reported to the child protection officer who would deal with the formal reporting if it were deemed necessary. I could be asked to help assess the child or provide statements to police. In the case of the abuser staff working in safeguarding children has a responsibility to ensure children are adequately protected and a responsibility to share information about individuals where a risk of child abuse is suspected with Social Care Service Managers. Legislation, National Care Standards and SSSC Codes of Practice contribute to the protection of children and vulnerable adults. In NCSÃ¢â¬â¢s for school care accommodation services standard 3.3 looks at care and protection states that workers are aware of child protection policies and procedures. Standard 3.7 ensures protection issues are dealt with using policies and procedures. The SSSC codes of practice contribute to protection code 3.2 states we must carry out the correct processes and procedures to challenge and report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or exploitive behaviour and practice. code 3.7 states we must support service users/carers to make complaints, taking complaints seriously, responding to or passing to appropriate person. Code 2.7 states to respect confidential information. For child protection, no Schedule One offence is ever Ã¢â¬ËspentÃ¢â¬â¢ in terms of Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 has sections relevant to care workers and committed against service users such as; Section 39 Care workers: causing or inciting sexual activity, Section 40 Care workers: sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder & Section 41 Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act. The support, therapy and treatment of those affected by abuse is an important factor in ensuring wellbeing and safety. Statutory, voluntary and private/independent organisations provide diverse services some of which may overlap. Set up through government remit such as SurvivorScotland, social service and education departments, CAMHS are part of the NHS who support young people and their families with emotional, behavioral and mental health difficulties. A single shared assessment from a multi-agency partner ship of professionals not only protect but prevent with early intervention. Many voluntary agencies/charities focus on helping children such as, Barnardos, Womens Aid and the NSPCC (National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children) who work at national, regional and local level, some of their services include Childline as well as advise lines like the CTAC (Child Trafficking Advice Centre). Private services are profit driven, including home care providers and respite services. Instances of disclosure in various aspects which must be always dealt with professionally no matter how distressing. Workers/carers are offered support in the form of counselling through BACP (The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy) or services such as mind, Re-think or Samaritans whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll listen to, provide support, advice, signposts or referrals to other agencies. There will be instances where workers will support the Ã¢â¬ËabusedÃ¢â¬â¢ however may find themselves supporting an Ã¢â¬ËabuserÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ësomeone at risk of abusingÃ¢â¬â¢. Police, Prison Services, Local Authorities, and Social Services work closely to minimise risk and supervise offenders in the community. It is crucial not to allow personal feelings/values to conflict with professionalism. The Human Rights Act, Article 8: Right to privacy, highlights the importance of confidentiality in this line of work, however this right can be limited if it is necessary to protect public safety which Police and Social Work would determine through on-going reviews of risk level each offender poses, reducing the likelihood of further offending by providing sex offender group-work through social work services. Not all sex offenders are alike, some people have deep regrets and go on to be law-abiding whereas others have deep-rooted psychological problems requiring intensive support to manage behaviour. Workers should bear in mind that a significant proportion of sexual crimes go unreported and there are a number of sex-offenders not known to the authorities and need t o take sensible safety precautions if you should suspect such individuals. Workers will have supervision with managers where issues are highlighted or access to counselling. Bibliography BINGHAM, E. et al. (2009) HNC in Social Care. For Scotland. Essex: Heinemann. BROWNMILLER, S. (1975) Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Simon and Schuster. CHILD MATTERS (2014) Learn about Child Abuse [Online]. Available from: http://www.childmatters.org.nz/42/learn-about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse [Accessed: 20th March 2014] COMPANY POLICIES & PROCEDURES. ANON (Data Protection Act 1998) SC03-Child Protection MIND (2014) How to Cope as a Carer [Online]. Available from: http://www.mind.org.uk/media/859562/how-to-cope-as-a-carer-2014-.pdf [Accessed: 3rd May 2014] SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS. (2012) National Care Standards. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nationalcarestandards.org/52.html [Accessed: 7th March 2014]. SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS (2010) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland & The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 & National Guidance Ã¢â¬â Under-age Sexual Activity [Online]. Available from: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/12/09134441/8 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/254432/0078985.pdf http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/10/20066/44708 [Accessed: 7th March & 19th May 2014] SCOTLAND JUDICIARY Fatal Accident Inquiry into the Deaths on Erskine Bridge (2010) [Online]. Available from: http://scotland-judiciary.com/10/895/Fatal-Accident-Inquiry-into-the-deaths-on-Erskine-Bridge [Accessed 9th May 2014] THE OXFORD DICTIONARY (2014) Abuse [Online] Available from: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/abuse [Accessed 17th March 2014] LIBERTY (2014) Human Rights Act Myths [Online] Available from:
Friday, November 8, 2019
Reasons Animals Become Endangered When an animal species is considered endangered, it means that the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has evaluated it as nearly extinct, which means that a significant portion of its range has already died off and the rate of birth is lower than the species death rate. Today, more and more animal and plant species are on the verge of extinction because of a variety of major factors that cause a species to become endangered, and as you might expect, humans play a role in quite a few of them. In fact, the biggest threat to endangered animals is human encroachment on their habitats. Fortunately, conservation efforts around the world are bent on helping these endangered animals revitalize their dwindling populations through a variety of humanitarian efforts, including curtailing illegal poaching, halting pollution, and habitat destruction, and curtailing the introduction of exotic species into new habitats. Habitat Destruction and Pollution Every living organism needs a place to live, but a habitat is not just a residence, it is also where an animal finds food, raises its young and allows the next generation to take over. Unfortunately, humans destroy animal habitats in a number of different ways: building houses, clearing forests to get lumber and plant crops, draining rivers to bring water to those crops, and paving over meadows to make streets and parking lots. In addition to physical encroachment, human development of animals habitats pollutes the natural landscape with petroleum products, pesticides, and other chemicals, which destroys food sources and viable shelters for the creatures and plants of that area. As a result, some species die outright while others are pushed into areas where they cant find food and shelter. Worse yet, when one animal population suffers it affects many other species in its food web so more than one species population is likely to decline. Habitat destruction is the number one reason for animal endangerment, which is why conservation groups work diligently to reverse the effects of humanÃ developments. Many non-profit groups like the Nature ConservancyÃ clean up coastlines and establish nature preserves to prevent further harm to native environments and species around the world. Introduction of Exotic Species Destroys Delicate Food Systems An exotic species is an animal, plant, or insect that is introduced into a place where it did not evolve naturally.Ã Exotic species often have a predatory or competitive advantage over native species, which have been a part of a particular biological environment for centuries, because even though native species are well adapted to their surroundings, they may not be able to deal with species that closely compete with them for food. Basically, native species havent developed natural defenses for an exotic species and vice versa. One example of endangerment due to both competition and predation is the Galapagos tortoise. Non-native goats were introduced to the Galapagos Islands during the 20th century. These goats fed on the tortoises food supply, causing the number of tortoises to decline rapidly. Because the tortoises could not defend themselves or stop the overpopulation of goats on the island, they were forced to abandon their native feeding grounds. Many countries have passed laws banning specific exotic species known to endanger native habitats from entering the country. Exotic species are sometimes referred to as invasive species, especially in cases of banning them. For instance, the United Kingdom has placed raccoons, mongooses, and cabbages on their invasive species list, all of which are barred from entering the country. Illegal Hunting Can Endanger Species When hunters ignore rules that regulate the number of animals that should be hunted (a practice known as poaching), they can reduce populations to the point that species become endangered. Unfortunately, poachers are often hard to catch because they are deliberately trying to evade authorities, and they operate in areas where enforcement is weak. Furthermore, poachers have developed sophisticated techniques for smuggling animals. Baby bears, leopards, and monkeys have been sedated and stuffed into suitcases for transport. Live animals have been sold to people who want exotic pets or medical research subjects. And, animal pelts and other body parts are also secretly smuggled across borders and sold through black market networks of buyers who pay high prices for illegal animal products. Even legal hunting, fishing, and gathering of wild species can lead to population reductions that cause species to become endangered. A lack of restriction on the whaling industry in the 20th century is one example. It wasnt until several whale species were nearingÃ extinctionÃ that countries agreed to abide by an international moratorium. Some whale species have rebounded thanks to this moratorium but others remain at risk.Ã International laws forbid these practices, and there are a number of government and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) whose sole purpose is to stop illegal poaching, especially of animals like elephants and rhinoceroses. Thanks to the efforts of groups like the International Anti-Poaching FoundationÃ and local conservation groups like the PAMS Foundation in Tanzania, these endangered species have human advocates fighting to protect them from outright extinction. How Are Animals Endangered? Of course, species endangerment and extinction can happen without human interference. Extinction is a natural part of evolution. Fossil records show that long before people came along, factors such as overpopulation, competition, sudden climatic change, and catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions and earthquakes drove the decline of numerous species. There are a few warning signs that a species could become extinct. If a species has some economic importance, such as the Atlantic salmon, it may be at risk. Surprisingly, large predators, who we might expect to have an advantage over other species, are often at risk as well. This list includes grizzly bears, bald eagles, and gray wolves. A species whose gestational period is lengthy, or who have small numbers of offspring at each birth has the potential to become endangered more readily. The mountain gorilla and California condor are two examples.Ã And species with weak genetic makeup, like manatees or giant pandas, have more risk of extinction with each generation.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
JFK Assassanation essays The Assassination of John F. Kennedy Over thirty years ago, John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He was supposed murdered by Lee Harvey Oswald. Many suspect differently. What does the proof say? What proof is real? Who can we trust? On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy arrived in Dallas Texas. He was touring the United States as part of his campaign to run for president in 1964. The motorcade left the airport. A short time later when the limousine was traveling through Dealey Plaza, a shot rang out. Then two or three more shots were fired. The president and the governor were both wounded. One half hour later the president was announced dead. The authorities immediately began questioning eyewitnesses and then started to search for the assassin or any trail he left behind. Patrolmen J.D. Tippit and M.N MacDonald were following the suspect behind a theatre. Officer Tippit opened fire and the suspect, later identified as Lee Harvey Oswald, returned fire killing officer Tippit instantly. After Oswald was subdued he was taken to the police station were he was interrogated immediately. Oswald denied having anything to do with the murder of John Kennedy, but Captain Will Fritz was quoted saying He hasnt admitted anything yet, but he looks like a good suspect. Oswald was to be moved to a state prison to wait to be tried for the assassination of the president. Before he could be safely away Jack Ruby cane up to him and fired on him at point blank range killing him in front of hundreds of reporters. This was also on live television, but what connection does Jack Ruby have to the assassination. Lee Harvey Oswald, the man charged with killing the thirty-eighth president of the United States. The question why did he do it? Or did he do it? Lee Harvey Oswald was an ex-marine, said to be at a medium level of proficiency with a rifle when he was in the marines. After being discharged from the marines he went to Russia. He...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Origin of Valentine's Day - Essay Example For instance, in the Yester years, ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day was a liturgical celebration on the early Christian saints called Valentinus. Saint Valentine was profoundly associated with martyrology as he conducted the weddings of many soldiers (Pfatteicher, 86, 2008). The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ sentiments depict a chronological flow of events since the inception of ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day to the current prevalent trends. I selected the author; Pfatteicher (2008) based on his extensive research hence depicting reliability. The information source is a book, and the author is a researcher by profession. This paper seeks to discuss the origin of valentine day. The ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day is profoundly associated with romantic love emanating from the traditional courtly love. This traditional love flourished in the circles of Geoffrey Chaucer who lived in the High middle ages. Ever since the 15th century, Saint ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day has evolved into a lover occasion where pleasantries were exchanged. These gifts have ever been meant to signify the intent of love and include flowers, confectionery, and greeting cards. The 19th century gave rise to hand written greeting cards and heart shaped outlines, a winged cupid figure and a dove. It is eminent that ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day dates way back into history and is entrenched in the Roman Empire. From these sentiments, I think the author was truth full trying to relay detailed information. The history of Saint ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day is shrouded in mystery. The only known facts are as follows; Saint ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day has over the years being a romantic celebration. This day also exhumes the vintages of Christians as well as some roman cultural traditions. However, it is still not clear how this Saint Vale ntine came to be associated with an ancient rite that has survived several centuries. The Catholic Church for instance recognizes three Saint Valentines commonly
Friday, November 1, 2019
UNIT 4 IP Portion of GP - Term Paper Example lysis is used for various purposes: segmenting the markets and determining target markets, product positioning and new product development and selecting test markets. Cluster analysis is used in many restaurants, especially those that cater to people of different race. As in America, people of different races frequent famous restaurants. Thus, the cluster technique can be used to segment the market into these different races. The owners and managers then can specifically suit the need the specific race as to their eating habits and their tastes. Factor analysis is also used by business especially to analyze a large volume of measurements and to search for their interrelationships. Ã¢â¬Å"A restaurant chain might gather and conduct factor analysis for a large volume of data on consumer preferences in order to determine the relative importance of portion size, pricing, and perceived qualityÃ¢â¬ (LoveToKnow, Corp.). On the other hand, multi-dimensional scaling is used Ã¢â¬Å"to detect meaningful underlying dimensions that allow the researcher to explain observed similarities or dissimilarities (distances) between the investigated objectsÃ¢â¬ (StatSoft, Inc). Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2009, September 2). Retrieved November 5, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org: