Friday, December 27, 2019

Theory of Planned Behaviour - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1646 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Rodgers and Sheldon (2002) observed the motivational factors behind internet shopping and suggested four underlying motives which are information, communication, exploration and acquisition. In conducting marketing research for e-commerce companies it is particularly important to study the consumer internet usage pattern. The need of the consumer which may be termed as the ultimate function or utility of the consumer instigates the requirement of conducting a particular behaviour. To understand the motives of each segment and to discover naturally occurring consumer groups drive towards knowing the characteristics and needs of every segment. Strategic and competitive advantage can be gained through identifying the unique needs and attitudes of the diverge consumer segments. Theory of planned behaviour The human decision making process could be explained by the theory of planned behaviour which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action. The variables i n the theory are attitude, behaviour, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention. As an extension of theory of reasoned action, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) explains the human decision making process (Azjen 1985, 1991; Azjen and Fishbein 1980). TPB assists the researcher in explaining behaviors over which individuals have incomplete voluntary control (See Figure 1). Variables included in the theory include a) attitude, b) behavior, c) subjective norm, d) perceived behavior control, and e) intention. Attitude toward a behavior and subjective norm about engaging in a behavior are supposed to control intention. Attitude depicts an individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s feelings, inclination or disinclination towards performing a behavior. Subjective norms reveal the individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s perceptions of the influence of significant others (e.g., family, friends, peers, etc.) TPB additionally includes perceived behavior control over engaging in behaviors as an i nfluential form of intention. Perceived behavior control (PBC) relates to the sense of uncertainty that influences behavior directly or indirectly. As shown in the Figure 1, the Theory of Planned Behavior Model suggests that human behavioral decision- making is partially controlled by the consumerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s actions. This part is defined as the perceived behavioral control variable. The perceived behavioral control variable may influence behavior through its impact on intentions as well as directly. For example, a consumer might refrain from shopping online if he/she perceives the purchasing process is complicated or if does not possess a credit card. Such considerations are incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1985, 1991). TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) Adapted from the Theory of Reasoned Action (Azjen 1980; Fishbein and Ajzen 1975), the Technological Acceptance Model suggests that a prospective technology userà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s over all attitudes toward using a given technology-based system or procedure represents major determinants as to whether or not he/she will ultimately use the system (Davis 1993). TAM has been utilized in numerous settings involving varying forms of Theory of Planned Behavior (Figure-1) Attitude towards the behavior Intention Perceived behavioral Control Subjective Norm Behavior 11 technological adoption (Venkatesh and Davis 2000). It has also been successfully applied to help understand and explain the adoption of information systems/technology in marketing contexts; including Internet-based, retail consumer behaviors (Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Cass and Fenech 2003). In marketing contexts, external variables examined include shopping motives (Eastlick and Feinberg 1999), consumer skill/expertise, demographics (Mattilia et al. 2003), personality characteristics, and computer anxiety (Harrison and Rainer 1992). Diffusion of Innovation The concept of innova tion has received a great deal of attention within the diffusion of innovation framework particularly in relation to the information technology and marketing research (Agarwal and Prasad 1998; Midgley and Dowling 1978; Rogers, 1995). According to the Diffusion of Innovation a ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢personal innovativenessÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- construct is conceptualized as the degree and pace of adoption of innovation by an individual. The innovativeness concept represents an innate phenomenon and is widely used in psychology to identify innovative characteristics of individuals (Kirton 1976). Innovativeness is considered a generalized personality trait (also called ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢global innovativenessÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-) (Goldsmith and Hofacker 1991; Goldsmith et al. 1995). The conceptualization of innovativeness has also been examined in marketing literature (e.g., Midgley and Dowling 1978; Flynn and Goldsmith 1993). Consum ers who are innovative are representative as being highly abstract and possess a generalized personality trait (Im, Bayus, and Mason 2003). Examples as to the levels of abstraction inherent across the various literatures utilizing this perspective include ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢a willingness to changeÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬- (Hurt et al. 1977) and the receptivity to new experiences and novel stimuli (Goldsmith 1984; Leavitt and Walton 1975). In general however, consumers are not necessarily receptive to change. The Internet is a fairly new and discontinuous innovation. That is, a form of innovation that requires individuals to learn new skills in order to use the technology. Research reveals that diffusion of innovation theory is applicable to the study of online shopping. Specifically, consumers who have personal preferences of shopping in a brick-and-mortar store or patronize one specific retailer will typically have difficulty in changing purchasing patterns (Kaufm an-Scarborough and Lindquist, 2002). Consumers who prefer traditional retail channels or conversations with customer service personnel during the purchasing process will typically avoid the online shopping channel regardless of the benefits offered (e.g., convenience). Perceived Risks Online transaction involves a temporal separation of payment and product delivery. A consumer must provide financial information (e.g., credit card details) and personal information (e.g., name, address and phone number) for delivery in order to complete the purchasing process. Risks perceived or real, exist due to technology failure (e.g., breaches in the system) or human error (e.g., data entry mistakes). The most frequently cited risks associated with online shopping include financial risk (e.g., is my credit card information safe?), product risk (e.g., is the product the same quality as viewed on the screen?), convenience (e.g., Will I understand how to order and return the merch andise?), and non-delivery risk (e.g., What if the merchandise is not delivered?) The level of uncertainty surrounding the online purchasing process influences consumersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" perceptions regarding the perceived risks (Bhatnagar et al. 2000). Financial Risk: Financial risk is a possibility with shopping online due to the fact that consumers disclose sensitive information (e.g., credit card information) to a vendor. While the majority of online retailers are legitimate and have a secure website, there may be some illegal persons posing as online retailing for the purpose of credit card fraud (Bhatnagar et al. 2000). Security of the financial information and resources is the number one consumer of US online shoppers (Ranganathan and Ganapathy 2002). The perceived level of risk is often the deciding factor regarding which retail channel to patronize (i.e., brick-and-mortar vs. online retailer). Although research regarding Indianà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s perceptions of financi al risk could not be found, it can be assumed that consumers in India and indeed worldwide have similar concerns regarding the perceived financial risk associated with online shopping. Product risk: Product risk consists of the risk associated with making an unwise or inappropriate purchase decision. The decision is typically made based on insufficient information that was provided on the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s website. Product risk may also be the risk of purchasing an expensive product because of the inability to compare prices, being unable to easily return a product, or not receiving delivery on a purchased product (Jarvenpaa, Todd and Bradd 1997; Vijayasarathy and Jones 2000). Poor product performance is another type of product risk. As customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" expectations of product performance increase, the potential for product performance problem also increases (Jarvenpaa, Todd and Bradd 1997; Vijayasarathy and Jones 2000, Bhatnagar et al. 2000). Convenience Risk: Convenience risk addresses the risk associated with the ease (or lack thereof) with ordering products and services through an online retailer. In a brick-and mortar store, consumers can readily solve their purchasing problems by going into the store as most retailers have a designated Return Department. The process is handledÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬-face-to-face.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" The transaction is convenient in part because consumers are accustomed to the process. Online retailing poses a convenience risk. To ask questions, return a product, find a different size, or complain, consumers are unable to walk into the store. Instead, each online retailer has a different protocol. Some online retailers have a phone line, while others require the consumers to e-mail the question or comment. The consumers often perceive an increased level of convenience risk because they have a loss of connection with the retailer (Poal and Leunis 1999). After-sales service and timely responses to enq uiries are of great importance to consumers (Spence et al. 1970; Festervand et al. 1986). Non-delivery Risk: Once a consumer purchases a product online, delivery is the final step of the process. The risk of delayed and non-delivery of product. Since there is a physical separation between customers and products in web interface, it creates order assembly and transportation costs that are not incurred in traditional retailing (Rosen Howard 2000). These costs are so high that firms have no choice but to charge the shipping cost to the customers. Survey results have indicated that shipping fees are the main complaint of more than 50 percent of online shoppers and that more than 60 percent of shoppers have abandoned an order when shipping fees are added (Ernst and Young 1999). Lewis (2006) found that higher shipping fees are associated with reduced ordering rates, and policies that charge more shipping fees to larger orders lead to reduced order size. Time taken in receipt of order is also an important element in online shopping. Demographics Previous research has revealed that online buying behavior is affected by demographics, channel knowledge, perceived channel utility and shopping orientations (e.g., Li, Cheng, and Russell 1999; Weiss 2001). Results indicate that compared with brick-and-mortar shoppers, online consumers tend to be are older (Bellman et al. 1999; Donthu and Garcia 1999; Weiss 2001), better educated (Bellman et al. 1999; Li et al. 1999; Swinwyard and Smith 2003), have higher income (Bellman et al. 1999; Li et al. 1999; Donthu and Garcia 1999; Swinwyard and Smith 2003), and more technologically savvy (Li et al. 1999; Swinwyard and Smith 2003). Men are more likely to purchase products and/or services from the Internet than women (Garbarino Strahilevitz 2004; Korgaonkar and Wolin 1999; Slyke et al. 2002). Reasons for shopping online have been cited for time efficiency, avoidance of crowds, and 24 hour shopping availability (Karayann i 2003). Don’t waste time! 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Causes of the Civil War Essay example - 1121 Words

Who would have thought that a nation could split and turn on each other? The Civil war has main causes, key people, and battles. All of the people, events, and causes effected how the war came to be and how the Civil War was fought. The important people of the Civil war made important decisions that may have caused one side to a victory or a horrific lose. The battles of the war were bloody and devastating, and the causes of the Civil War show how different the North was from the South. Many people know the Civil War was extremely significant, but most people dont know what caused this major battle in history. Sectionalism was one cause of the Civil Wars main causes. Sectionalism means loyalty to your state or union rather than your†¦show more content†¦The Act caused even more controversy. Dred Scott was a slave in a slave state, but then moved to a free state, so he thought that he was now a free person. The court decided he was not a free person because he was still prope rty. In addition, the Missouri and Main became a free state. This was named the Missouri Compromise. It stated that no more states north of the new boundary could become a slave state, which angered some who needed slaves to run their farms. (Wise...) The controversy over slaves ultimately led to the secession. Abraham Lincoln thinks slavery is wrong and he wants to stop it from spreading. Earlier, he had warned that slavery could separate a nation. In the 1860 election Lincoln is elected, but southerners are worried he will end slavery forever. Southern states start to secede because they are worried. First South Carolina succeeds, then North, Texas, and then Florida too. They give themselves a new name called the Confederate States of America. (Wise...) The Civil war kicked off and many key people were responsible for important things that happened in the war. Ulysses S. Grant was one of them. He was born in 1822. He was a skilled warrior and rose to the rank of captain in the mil itary. He resigned from the military in 1854. Grant tried farming for a little and was not successful., so he rejoined the military as a general in the Civil War. Then he served for president in 1869 for two terms and died in 1885.(National...) Robert E. Lee was bornShow MoreRelatedCauses of the Civil War951 Words   |  4 PagesCAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR In 1860, the world s greatest nation was locked in Civil War. The war divided the country between the North and South. There were many factors that caused this war, but the main ones were the different interpretations of the Constitution by the North and South, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the arrival of Lincoln in office. These factors were very crucial in the bringing upon of the destruction of the Union. They caused immediate war. In 1791, the tenth amendment wasRead MoreThe Causes Of The Civil War1016 Words   |  5 Pages In 1861, a Civil War broke out in the United States when the South declared their independence from the Union.  There is a great amount of reasons that people can argue how the Civil War was started. However, what most people don’t understand, is that most of the events leading up to the Civil War were related to slavery.  Slavery was the core of the North and South’s conflict, which led to a very vicious feud.   The immediate cause of the war was slavery. Southern states, including the 11 statesRead MoreThe Causes Of The Civil War1409 Words   |  6 PagesThe causes of the Civil War were complex and have been controversial since the country began. Some causes include; states’ rights, economics, and slavery. The most recognizable and popular cause is slavery. The freeing of the slaves was an important moral issue at the time and one of the greatest causes of the civil war. It was only by carefully avoiding the moral issue involved in slavery that Northerners and Southerners could meet on any common ground. (Goldston, 79). The time came in which ourRead MoreThe Cause of the Civil War800 Words   |  4 Pages The Cause of the Civil War Generally, it is thought to be the South’s fault for causing the Civil War. Contrary to popular belief, the Civil War was mainly provoked by the North; through using the federal government to overtake the South, removing slavery which would destroy Southern economy, and creating the moral issue of slavery. The North was the primary reason for the start of a war that ripped our country apart. The North had full control over the federal government and used that to suppressRead MoreCivil War Causes1382 Words   |  6 Pages Causes of the Civil War John Brown’s Raid vs. Industrial Revolution John Brown’s Raid was a more influential cause to the civil war than the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution caused incompability between the North and the South. The North relied on wage laborers with the new machine age economy while the South relied heavily on slaves. So, the North did not need slaves for their economyRead MoreCauses Of The Civil War1740 Words   |  7 PagesThe Civil War was not an event that erupted overnight or something that no one had seen coming. It was a result of long stemming conflicts. â€Å"The road to civil war was complex and multi-faceted† (Wells, 1). These conflicts kept creating a divide amongst the states in the nation. The divide finally became so great, that the United States split into the Confederacy (South) and the Union (North), and fighting erupted. â€Å" â€Å"The Civil War,† Randall Jimerson observes, â€Å"became a total war involving the entireRead MoreThe Causes Of The Civil War1238 Words   |à ‚  5 PagesGalindo Mr. Scheet AP U.S History 5 November 2017 Unit 4 Essay The initial causes of the Civil War have been previously discussed and analyzed by historians, but have remained one of the most controversial debates, due to its numerous causes that created the most devastating war in American history. The country had been avoiding the disputes that would later become the causes of the civil war for decades. The Mexican War is proof that the issue of slavery was put on hold by President James K. PolkRead MoreCause of the Civil War1296 Words   |  6 PagesHistory 11 12/17/2006 The root causes and precipitating events that led to the Civil War (1861-1865) The Civil War between northern and southern states was a consequence of contradictions of two social systems inside the country. At the basis of these contradictions was a question of slavery, completely determining economic and political interests of South. North strived to enforce Federal government power to protect their own economic stability. As a result the South wanted a separationRead MoreCauses of the Civil War1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe Causes Of The Civil War The Political War The North and South fought over politics, mainly the idea of slavery. Basically the South wanted and needed it and the North did not want it at all. The South was going to do anything they could to keep it. This was the issue that overshadowed all others. At this time the labor force in the South had about 4 million slaves. These slaves were very valuable to the slaveholding planter class. They were a huge investment to Southerners and if taken awayRead MoreThe Causes Of Civil War2004 Words   |  9 PagesGà ¶ksel What are the causes of Civil War? Do ethnic determinants play an important role? Why are certain parts of Africa characterized by ethnic conflict while other parts remain relatively calm? The conventional understanding on the causes of civil war especially within African countries, to a considerable degree, has being predominantly characterized to draw its root on ethnic divergences. However, such premise appear extremely difficult to be true, owing to the fact that civil war is a complex action

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Gulf War Essay Example For Students

Gulf War Essay The attack of Iraqi military forces to a small Arab state called Kuwait on orders from president Saddam Hussein caused The US to interfere with the situation resulting in a war called The Gulf War of 1991 starting in January 16 ending in February 28. The military campaign against Iraq had two phase: The Air War and the Ground War . The aim of the air war was to destroy the stratecigally important places and the ground war was for reinforcement of the air war. There were a number of reasons that caused the war in addition to the invasion of Kuwait by the Iraqi Military Forces; these reasons were: Iraq; publicly decrying the US naval presence in the Persian Gulf and making increasingly belligerent threats against Kuwait and The United Arab Emirates whom they accused of breaking agreements limiting oil production and thereby severely depressing world oil prices and costing Iraq billions of dollars in annual revenue. The Gulf war resulted in Kuwait having great amount of economic loss and in addition to great economic loss a continuous sanction and embargo to Iraq by the United Nations. In contrary US gained a great amount of prestige in the international area by showing that they are the only superpower and found clients to its new technology weapons which US used in the Gulf War. The Us is a militarist country and the US government is justified in attacking Iraq, however there are arguements against this evaluation. These arguements can be refuted by arguements supporting the militarist theory. Firstly, as a contrary argument it is said that states role is not to define rights but to defend rights, in other words, rights are not given by the states they are given naturally, but it can be said that in reality states define the notion of property, therefore, the US can define rights of people even in Iraq because they have taken the power from the Iraq government by applying force. Secondly, people against militarism state that strength does not mean the aggressor should behave aggressively because war is an expensive solution to a problem in terms of both money and peoples lives. The reality is that the country holding the power can define the rights. The strong always wins against the weak. Therefore the US is justified because in every field they are stronger than Iraq nobody has the power to stop the US. Then the US can invade Iraq whenever they want as they did in the Gulf War. Aggressiveness is sometimes needed especially when there are conflicts between states.Lastly, it can be said that it is necessary to defend weak countries because today Kuwait would have been a city of Iraq unless UShad stopped Iraq; this can refute the argument against militarism saying that weak countries do not want the US to protect them. In conclusion, the US is a militarist country and justified in attacking Iraq. Militarism is not a negative theory because living in a world containing some militarist countries is better than living in a world in which there is no balancing powers.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Excellence and Symmetry Approach

Introduction The aspect of public relations (PR) ranks amongst the most important components in the management disciplines. PR has been a subject of interest amongst different scholars, which has led to the emergence of diverse paradigms and theories on how to implement it. Westbrook (2014, p.106) affirms that the focus of PR has shifted from a single media relations to the integration of the diverse activities undertaken in order to ensure effective and efficient transfer and sharing of information with the target stakeholders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Excellence and Symmetry Approach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay evaluates the assertion that some scholars have regarded the excellence and asymmetry approach as the ‘dominant paradigm’ based on findings of other studies conducted by PR scholars. The approach adopted in the paper links the concept of excellence theory and the t wo-way symmetric communication in PR practices. The dominant Paradigm In his 1996 study, Kuhn defined paradigm to include the set of values, beliefs, and techniques shared by members of a particular society regarding a particular element (Bardhan Weaver, 2011, p.84). Subsequently, paradigms refer to unified mindsets or worldviews regarding a particular aspect. Paradigms are subject to shift due to studies conducted to deal with possible anomalies associated with the old model. Additionally, new standards might arise due to the conceptualisations of some aspects outside the existing paradigmatic assumption. Therefore, it is possible for disparate paradigms, which are in tension with each other, to emerge without displacing the different paradigms. For example, the studies conducted by different scholars on the excellence theory have led to the emergence of new paradigms. The excellence/symmetry approach has been touted by different scholars, such as James Grunig, as the ‘domin ant paradigm’ in PR. The validity of the excellence/symmetry approach Managing strategic relationships constitutes one of the fundamental principles of PR (Toth, 2009, p.80). Isaac and Ahmed (2014, p.117) assert that PR enables organisations to deal with possible conflicts that might arise. Furthermore, PR enables organisations to develop and maintain a long-term mutual relationship with the political and social environments. Subsequently, PR enables organisations to minimise the cost of operation by establishing a mutual relationship with the public. L’Etang (2007, p.14) contends that the excellence theory is focused on the role of PR in developing a robust organisational relationship. Therefore, organisations should perceive PR management as an essential element in their decision-making and conflict resolution activities.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ‘excellence approach’ is one of the views that have been formulated in an effort to explain the best philosophy that an organisation can adopt in order to attain its goals. The excellence approach is based on the systems’ framework, which entrenches the concepts of measurability, organisational effectiveness, and interdependence (L’Etang, 2013, p.61). Additionally, the excellence approach emphasises the importance of appreciating the internal and external environments in organisational management processes. Therefore, organisations must collect and utilise available foreign intelligence to gain new knowledge in various aspects, hence enhancing the degree of organisational excellence. The excellence theory argues that attaining organisational excellence depends on the management team’s commitment to satisfying the internal and external stakeholders (Toth, 2009, p.81). Failure to take into consideration the internal and external stakeholders exposes an organisation to internal and external sources of pressure, which might affect the formulated organisational policies and goals negatively. Furthermore, the excellence theory underscores the importance of ensuring that an organisation operates in a socially acceptable manner. Thus, it is imperative for organisational managers to conduct an extensive evaluation of the environment in which they operate with the objective of identifying the different public groups who might be affected by their organisational decisions and policies. This aspect highlights the extent to which the excellence theory is focused on developing a mutual relationship with the public. The significance of the excellence theory in the 21st century management field has further been enhanced by the assertion of other scholars. According to Marsh (2013, p.74), the excellence theory is increasingly being perceived as one of the strategic roles in public relations. Despite the existence of dissenting opinions from o ther scholars, most scholars cite the excellence theory as the ‘closest public relations paradigm’ (Marsh, 2013, p.75). However, the successful attainment of organisational excellence is only possible if effective communication is adopted, which underscores the importance of taking the symmetrical model. The concept of excellence in public relations is based on the two-way balanced approach. However, most organisations experience a challenge balancing between asymmetry and symmetry in their communication process. The proportioned plan assumes that it is imperative for organisations to major on promoting a high level of interdependence with other schemes that are established within the commercial setting and free flow of information.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Excellence and Symmetry Approach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Grunig and Dozier (2003, p.69) are of the view that the excellence concept is grounded on the symmetrical PR model. According to Dozier (2003, p.69), â€Å"the symmetrical model is not based on total accommodation or pure cooperation with the public†. On the contrary, it highlights the importance of reconciling the interests of the various stakeholders. Findings of past studies on the concept of excellence affirm that it is tightly linked to the extent to which proportional relationships have been developed to attain mutual benefits. Models of PR and the dominance of the two-way symmetrical perspectives Communication is strongly entrenched in the excellence concept of public relations. According to Botan and Hazleton (2013, p.112), communication forms the basis upon which an organisation interacts with the public. The symmetry approach emphasises the significance of establishing a balance between the organisation and the society through communication. The two-way communication model has extensively been regarded as the normative model in PR practice, hence leading to its entrenchment in the excellence theory. Moreover, the notion of two-way proportioned standpoint adheres to propositions of the system’s premise as illustrated by James Grunig and Todd Hunt in their 1984 study on the typology of PR. The system’s theory argues that organisations are comprised of sub-systems that interact with each other in order to attain a particular outcome (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.93). The study led to the â€Å"development of diverse models, which include the press agentry, two-way symmetric communication, two-way asymmetric communication, and public information† (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.93). Press agentry/ publicity model is a one-way model and it is intended to create and spread propaganda (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.81). Thus, truth is not a key element in the press agentry model of PR. Additionally, the model is characterised by minimal research. Some of the areas in which press agentry is applied include sports, product promotion, and theatre. However, the application of press agentry in the contemporary society is minimal and it is estimated to be 15%. Similar to the press agentry model, the public information model is one way and its core objective is the dissemination of information. Minimal research is involved in this model. However, unlike the press agentry model, truth is essential in the public information model. Currently, the application of the public information model is evident in different areas, such as business, non-governments, and governments. Its usage is estimated to be 50 % (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.82).  The focus of two-way asymmetric communication is a scientific persuasion. However, two-way asymmetric communication leads to imbalance.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model is mainly practised by competitive businesses and its usage is estimated to be 20%. Conversely, the two-way symmetric communication is aimed at developing mutual understanding between different parties. The dominance of the two-way symmetric communication is evidenced by the fact that it leads to the development of balanced effects. Despite its appreciation of the existence of distinct boundaries between organisations and the external environment, the excellence theory asserts that organisations must interact and relate with external systems to attain excellence. Thus, organisations have a duty to develop a web of connections to attain long-term sustainability, which underscores the importance of establishing balance during the communication process. Consequently, the two-way symmetrical approach has been regarded as the most provocative theoretical concepts of excellence. According to the symmetrical dimension, communication forms the basis upon which individuals and org anisations adjust their behaviour and ideas in order to align with diverse stakeholders as opposed to controlling their behaviour (Heath, Toth Waymer, 2009, p.140). Thus, efforts to illustrate the application of the symmetrical dimension in attaining organisational excellence led to the conceptualisation of the two-way perspective. This perspective is concerned with developing a win-win situation between the organisation and the public, which underscores the fact that the concepts of excellence and symmetry align with the role of public relations in fostering optimal strategic management function. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the dominance of the various PR models. One of the most renowned studies entails ‘The Excellent Project’, which was undertaken by the International Association of Business Communicators [IABC] in the period of 1980-1990. The study emphasised the importance of incorporating ‘best practices’ in order to attain excelle nt PR. The study recognised the existence of the four models of PR (Fawkes, 2014, p.90). According to the study, public relations practitioners have a duty to interact with the internal organisation environment to gather sufficient data and relay information from the internal and external environments. This aspect means that the role of PR should not only entail generating news. On the contrary, a participative culture between the internal and external stakeholders must be created. However, this goal is only capable if dominant coalition between the internal and external stakeholders is established, which is only possible through the integration of symmetric communication.  Fawkes (2014, p.94) further affirms that effective negotiation should be applied to develop a participative culture. This aspect underscores the importance of incorporating optimal diplomatic skills to succeed in addressing the needs of diverse stakeholders. Therefore, organisational managers should act as medi ators between the public and the organisation in order to develop a mutual relationship with the public. Moreover, the internal organisational stakeholders and the external stakeholders must adjust their behaviour to accommodate the diverse needs. Therefore, the symmetry/excellence approach eliminates monologue type of communication, which leads to the creation of balance amongst the various stakeholders. Excellence and ethics The dominance of the symmetric/excellence approach in PR is further enhanced by the fact that the approach has integrated the concepts of ethics. Past studies show that ethics constitutes one of the fundamental elements in organisational management. Moreover, ethics enhances the likelihood of attaining organisational excellence (Fawkes, 2014, p.86). Amongst the various PR plans that have been developed, only the two-way regularity contact replica has integrated the importance of principles. Fawkes (2014, p.86) asserts that it is impossible for an organisation to practice public relations without taking into account socially responsible and ethical practices, which is not possible through asymmetric communication. Symmetric communication is inherently moral because it is based on generally acceptable codes of conduct. Other studies conducted by Bowen in 2007 and McElreath in 1996 consider the concept of ethic as a critical component in underpinning ‘best practices’ in organisations. The studies conducted by McElreath and Bowen show that is one of the most vital excellent factors that influences an organisation’s success in implementing excellent PR practices (Fawkes, 2014, p.88). Application of the excellence and symmetric approach in the contemporary business environment Several aspects evidence the support of the excellence and symmetry approach as ‘the dominant paradigm’ in public relations. However, one of the most notable areas of application relates to the integration of the concept of Corporate Soci al Responsibility [CSR] in organisations’ operations. Currently, organisations are increasingly adopting emerging social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, LinkedIn, and Google+ in an effort to interact with the public. This aspect insinuates that organisations are adopting the concept of interactive communication as opposed to communicating to the public. Furthermore, the two-way symmetric communication has presented organisations with an opportunity to address issues that emerge. For example, the successful execution of the two-way regularity communication at Mark Spencer, which is a cosmopolitan clothing vendor, experienced harmful exposure due to its decision to augment the price of bras above DD-cup size by  £ 2. However, the organisation’s management team dealt with the negative publicity by adopting two-way symmetric communication. Due to the extensive outcry on social media, the organisation was forced to withdraw the decision to raise the pr ice of the DD-cup size underwear (Poulter, 2009, par.8). This aspect highlights that the emergence of Internet-based technologies has strengthened organisations’ ability to undertake two-way communication, hence entrenching the likelihood of nurturing ‘best practices’ in their operation. The importance of the joint symmetric interaction in attaining organisational brilliance is evidenced by the assertion by Watson and Noble (2007, p.56) by affirming that communal anxiety can have adverse effects on an organisation’s commercial status Subsequently, it is imperative for organisational leaders to appreciate the needs of the external stakeholders [public] in order to implement excellent PR successfully. Critic of the symmetric-excellence approach The concepts of excellence and symmetry approach as the dominant paradigm in PR have been criticised by different scholars. Some scholars are of the view that the PR is in nature, asymmetrical. Moreover, other scholar s and practitioners are of the view that the balanced approach is an idealised position, which is difficult to implement, thus making it unrealistic. For example, it is difficult for organisations such as Shell Oil Company to integrate the balanced approach to develop a mutual relationship with the public comprising of unskilled workers. In their opinion, the critics argue that organisations hire PR representatives who are charged with the duty of practising asymmetrically. Therefore, most organisations tend to incorporate both symmetrical and asymmetrical model. This aspect shows that organisations should practice public relations by integrating the ‘mixed-motive’ approach, which entails developing a professional continuum comprised of symmetrical and asymmetrical practices. Grunig and Dozier (2003, p.111) think that the extent of collaboration amongst various stakeholders may be hindered by the existence of conflict between the interest groups. For example, an organis ation may be forced to adopt confrontational response in situations whereby activists are unwilling to collaborate. Studies conducted by Van der Meiden in 1993 show that taking the symmetrical model would force organisations to ignore their self-interest at the expense of the public interest, which is quite unrealistic and ill-advised (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.112). Another major criticism of the theory of excellence and the symmetric approach as the dominant paradigm in PR is based on the concept of collaboration. The success with which organisations integrate excellence and symmetrical communication depends on the extent of cooperation developed between the internal and external stakeholders (Grunig Dozier, 2003, p.114). However, it is quite challenging to develop such collaboration due to the existence of diverse barriers. Some of the significant obstacles that may limit organisations’ commitment to cooperation with the external stakeholders include institutional disincent ives, ideological and historical boundaries, and cultural differences. The symmetric-excellence model is based on the assumption that all groups within a particular society are interested in engaging in an organisation’s decision-making process, hence the need to establish a ‘participative culture’ to foster dialogue. The existence of differences in national culture may hinder collaboration between an organisation and the public. For example, the presence of high individualism index in the US may hinder the effectiveness with which firms in the region develop a mutual relationship with the public. Conversely, it is relatively easy to develop a collaborative approach in countries such as China, which are characterised by a low individualism index. Findings of studies conducted in Europe and Latin America show that the national culture plays a significant role in the implementation of PR practices (L’Etang, 2007, p.86). Therefore, attempts to integrate symme trical-excellence approach to PR may be hindered by cultural barriers, which limit the relevance of the symmetric-excellence model as the dominant paradigm in PR. Organisations should not be concerned with entrenching symmetries in their PR practices. On the contrary, they should appreciate the existence of differences in society and determine how to attain homoeostasis by minimising the existing differences. Conclusion Organisations are established with the goal of attaining long-term excellence. However, this goal is only possible if optimal practices are adopted. Available literature shows that the concept of public relations has undergone remarkable changes over the past decades, as evidenced by the emergence of diverse paradigms. One of the fundamental aspects that organisations should consider entails developing a strategic relationship with internal and external stakeholders, which underscores the importance of PR. The excellence approach is concerned with integrating ‘ best practices’ in organisations’ public relations processes. According to the excellence approach, organisations should focus on developing a strong relationship with other stakeholders. The relevance of this assertion hinges on the view that the degree to which organisations attains optimal performance is significantly impacted by the society within which they operate. Nevertheless, to achieve excellence, organisations must develop optimal market intelligence. The information gathered from the public forms the basis upon which organisations base their decision. In a bid to do well in collecting pertinent data from the community, it is imperative for organisations to focus on establishing an interactive culture to generate an atmosphere for discussion. In order to achieve discussion, it is imperative for organisations to integrate effectual interaction. However, available literature shows that different models emphasising on the concept of communication have been deve loped. Some of the standard plans of PR include press agentry, public data, and joint asymmetric and mutual symmetric approaches. However, the two-way symmetry communication model is the most dominant as it underscores the importance of balancing the interests and needs of different groups. The dominance of the two-way symmetric communication is evidenced by the high rate at which organisations are adopting interactive communication through social media platforms. Despite the criticism and different perspectives on the concept of symmetry-excellence, the critics have not succeeded in formulating theories on PR that can replace the symmetry-excellence approach, which sustains its strength as the dominant paradigm in PR. Furthermore, the dominance of the symmetry-excellence approach is underscored by the view that it incorporates the concept of ethics. Reference List Bardhan, N Weaver, K 2011, Public relations in global cultural contexts; multi-paradigmatic perspectives, Routledge, L ondon. Botan, C Hazleton, V 2010, Public relations theory II, Routledge, London. Fawkes, J 2014, Public relations ethics and professionalism; a Jungian approach; the shadow excellence, Routledge, New York. Grunig, J Dozier, D 2003, Excellent public relations and effective organisations; a study of communication management in three countries, Routledge, New York. Heath, R, Toth, E Waymer, D 2009, Rhetorical and critical approaches to public relations, Routledge, New York. Isaac, N Ahmed, R 2014, New media and communication across religions and cultures, Information Science Reference, Hershey. L’Etang, J 2007, Public relations; concepts, practices and critique, Sage, New York. L’Etang, J 2013, Sports public relations, Sage, Los Angeles. Marsh, C 2013, Classical rhetoric and modern public relations; an Isocratean model, Routledge, New York. Poulter, S 2009, Bra wars! Marks Spencer faces revolt over  £ 2 surcharge on DD-cup underwear, . email/article-1177548/Bra-wars-Marks-amp-Spencer-faces-revolt-2-surcharge-DD-cup-underwear.html Toth, E 2009, The future of excellence in public relations and communication management; challenges for the next generation, Routledge, New York. Watson, T Noble, P 2007, Evaluating public relations; a best practice guide to public relations planning, research evaluation, Kogan Page, Philadelphia. Westbrook, I 2014, Strategic corporate financial communications; the stock price story, Routledge, London. This essay on The Excellence and Symmetry Approach was written and submitted by user Kailey Decker to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.