Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Global Environmental Issues Essay Global environmental issues, such as climatic change, global warming, pollution, species extinction and destruction of tropical rain forests hold unique place among other major international problems as it is one area that has transformative, comprehensive and long term impact on the future of entire world. For over a decade now the subject of these issues have become the common platform for intellectuals citizens, scientists, social organizations, and political and economic leaders from different parts of world to converge, assess and determine the possible ways to contain and mitigate its threat, that poses an unprecedented risk to the functioning and perhaps very survival of humanity. Climatic change, rain forest destruction and global warming are all interrelated issues, borne from same cause of increase in population and consumption. The empirical instances of these problems have been already factually corroborated in late in 1980s and early 1990s (Paterson, 1996). The years since 1987 started to show the veracity of these predictions as global average annual temperature soared higher every passing year and 1998 became the warmest year in the recorded years. More ominously, the second and third most warmest years in recorded history were 1995 and 1993, confirming to scientists, environmentalists and people that the rise in global temperature was not a sudden phenomena, or an aberration, but a systematic process that would compound in the absence of any effective policy and action (Johansen, 2002). Meanwhile, the destruction of Amazon and African rain forests have further compounded the problem, causing the environmental conditions to deteriorate more rapidly. Issues of climatic change and global warming have assumed international proportion as people have started to realized that the warming is a consequence of the largely unstructured paradigm of development, consumption, and growth followed over past 200 years, a problem that has been deeply embedded in the socio-cultural and economic system of the world (Uzawa, 2003). Despite the fact that there are many people over the world who would readily associate United States as the whole sole perpetrator of emission of greenhouse gases and global warming, United States has been among the leading campaigners to instituting policy change and corrective actions on the most comprehensive and global level to tackle the problem. The threats arising from global warming are bound to affect USÃ¢â¬â¢ economic and public interests with same intensity as they would affect that of any other country (Fleagle, 1994). Changing sea-level, intensification of storms, and climatic change have presented real threats for the United States and it is pressed for a domestic as well international solution (Uzawa, 2003). The problems with US are that its complex economic interests, industrial structure and societal framework doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow it to implement any drastic measures that may force a possible economic collapse (Victor, 2001). Under these strenuous complications, the US government is trying to come up with a policy for large scale institutional change and economic streamlining that aims to incorporate environmental costs as part of the economy and the society.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was and is still one of the most secretive projects ever created in United States history. The purpose of the Manhattan Project was simple: to build; test; and unleash its power if necessary. Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves were the two men put in charge of this mission. These two men along with the top scientists from around the country were brought together to construct the most deadliest thing known to man. The project originated in the Pentagon in 1942 when General Groves was told, by the White House, he was to lead the Manhattan Project. World War II had already been raged for three years when the Nazis, after being victorious in Europe, declared war on the United States. This was nine months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. In September of that year, Groves, met with Leo Szilard and asked him if making the atomic bomb was possible. Leo told him how an atomic bomb would work, but also that it is impossible to build. General Groves only wanted to hear that an atomic bomb was conceivable in theory and then he knew to start the project. In October of 1942 Groves went to California to meet with Robert Oppenheimer, one of the most brilliant scientists in the country. Groves informed Oppenheimer that he had been selected to lead the expedition on trying to invent the atomic bomb. Oppenheimer immediately started preparing by telling Groves that they needed an isolated area with one ringmaster(Oppenheimer). General Groves was in charge of the military or security part of the project, while Oppenheimer was in charge of the organization of the scientists and ideas. At times, Oppenhiemer and Grooves had some nasty arguments over policies. Even though Groves was the one who reported to Washington, Oppenheimer had more power and Groves was aware of this. If they had a disagreement, Oppenheimer would threaten to leave the project and take his scientists with him. Groves knew if this occurred then the project would never be finished. So, Grooves most always ended up agreeing or letting Oppenheimer do what ever he wanted to do. In April of 1943, this isolated area was being build in Las Alamos, New Mexico. The borders consisted of barbed wire fence accompanied ... ...plete success. The Americans had finally complete building the first atomic bomb. The scientists held a parade in happiness, not only for successfully completing the project, but being able to go home and see their families and lead a normal life. Twenty one days later on August 6, 1945 Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima. Three days after that, Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki. Over 200,000 lives were taken because of the bombings. On September 2, 1945 Japan surrendered , unconditionally. Robert Oppenheimer was recognized as a national hero in the United States. In 1949, the White House asked him to lead a project in making the H+ Super Bomb. For recognizable reasons, he declined this offer. In 1954, his security clearances were revokedand he was slowly pushed out of public services. Robert Oppenheimer died of cancer in 1967. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bondi, Victor. American Decades. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1995 Lapp, Ralph E. "Manhattan Project," The World Book Encyclopedia, 1988, Volume 13, p.141 Mark, Carson. "Atomic Bomb," Encyclopedia Americana, 1989, Volume 2, p. 641-642
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Civilized or uncivilized Civilization is a limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessities. Ã¢â¬â-Mark Twain In Montaigne's essay on Cannibals, those people living in the uncivilized societies are first referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"noble savagesÃ¢â¬ . However, most Europeans, at that time, believed that the people without Ã¢â¬Å"the benefits of Christianity and civilizationÃ¢â¬ can not be regarded as civilized or advanced. Montaigne holds his ideas and specifically illustrates the reasons of the social norm that uncivilized people seem barbarous are that they have received little molding from the human intelligence and are very close to their original simplicity.Montaigne also criticizes the barbarian actions of Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ European society such as torturing prisoners. He also branches out topic to valour and believes that true victory lies the prize of valour, not winning itself. Based on the ideas of Montaigne, Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ world is not as perfect as peo ple thought, and motivate readers to rethink what civilization is about. What I learn from that essay is that civilized people may sometimes have extremely uncivilized behaviors, and uncivilized people also have their civilized aspects.For those Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬ people, in this essay, it is said that two things are the most important of their life which are Ã¢â¬Å"resolution in battleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"affection for their wivesÃ¢â¬ . Although their way of life seems limited, they live happily with their way of life. I admit their life are simple, but not uncivilized or barbarian. Their fighting is noble and disinterested because all they want to do is to show their valour which is also what people living in Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ societies want.However, we label them with Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬ by reference to the laws of reason and social norms created by completely different cultures of us, and keep doing the barbarian behaviors which are not belong to our Ã¢â¬Å"pe rfectÃ¢â¬ society such as killing the innocent in order to develop new territories. The action of judging another culture Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬ actually shows the weakness of Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ society. Therefore, the difference between both sides are not civilized or not, but the different cultures. All those different cultures make this world more colorful. Montaigne uses Plato's words in this essay to differentiate various societies or ations,which I agree with most part of those words. It is said that Ã¢â¬Å"all things are produced by either nature, or by chance, or by art; the greatest and most beautiful by one or other of the first two, the least and most imperfect by the lastÃ¢â¬ . I agree that things are produced because of those three reasons, but I don't think any one is better than another, because everything has its own reason of existing. All the different cultures make up of civilization, therefore, as Mark Twain said, civilization is necessities no matte r they are necessary or not.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The four aspects in sociology and their view on the media The media comes in many different formats ranging from the internet (new media) to newspapers (old media, which has been around for many years). The term Ã¢â¬Ëmass mediaÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to the technology, organisations and producers involved in one-way communication with large audiences without any face-to-face or personal contact. The media is mostly owned by trans-national companies (TNC). This essay explores the views of several aspects of sociology: Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism and Post-Modernism along with their views on the media, those who own it, and ultimately the role that the media plays in society. Functionalism is a structuralist, macro, systematic theory based on the role ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By doing so the media compliments other institutions in the socialisation process, for example the family, by further integrating the individual into society. Due to its role as a social institution, functionalists say that the media reflects and reinforces the value consensus by teaching the already established norms, values and the general agreement held by the masses. The ideology portrayed in the mass media is said to reflect society, as such acting like a mirror and ideologically neutral. This sociological theory finds no issue with TNCs controlling the media. Functionalists believe that the society in which we live is a meritocracy and that TNCs work within a fair and open market, for example any person in this society could start producing their own media on for example on Youtube or by publishing their own newspaper. In opposition to the functionalist view is Marxism based on conflict, another macro, structuralist theory. Marxist sociologists are concerned by social class, based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s occupations and the power and wealth which comes with being placed in that social strata. This sociological perspective is interested in the exploitive relationship of proletariats by the bourgeoisie, which justifies the social advantage of the wealth compared to the disadvantage to the ones who are not. The bourgeoisie have the power over the proletariat, the labour force creating the wealth for the ruling class. Marxist sociologists say that the media